Page 104 - Islam In Focus

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orientation at the hands of Muhammad, who in turn had been taught by God. These
teachings are recorded in the Qur’ an in verses like these:
God forbids you not, with regard to those who do not fight you for (your) Faith nor
drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them. For God loves
those who are just. God only forbids you with regard to those who fight you for (your)
Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support others in driving you out, from
turning to them for friendship and protection. Those who turn to them for friendship
and protection are the wrong- doers (60:8-9)
Finally, it is a categorical error to compare the Islamic State and its need for a Muslim
head with secular state where it is, theoretically, conceivable to have a head of state
who may belong to a minority group. The comparison is fallacious and misleading for
several reasons. First, it assumes that secularism, however superficial, is sounder than
the Islamic ideology. Such an assumption or premise is pretentious. Secondly, the
duties and rights of a head of state under Islam are quite different from those of his
counterpart in a secular order, as outlined above. Thirdly, the modern secular spirit is
for the most part a redemptive, apologetic restitution, a case which does not apply to
Islam. Moreover, a head of secular state, if there can be a real one, may belong to a
racial, ethnic, or religious minority. But he almost invariably has to join a majority
party. What this does in fact is to substitute a political majority for a religious one,
which is hardly an improvement of the minority status as such. Furthermore, the
whole secular argument presupposes that the state headship is a right or privilege that
may be conferred upon or denied to the individual. The Islamic position is radically
different. In Islam, the state headship is first and foremost an obligation, a trying
commitment, an awesome responsibility. It would be inequitable, therefore, if Islam
were to impose such responsibilities upon non-Muslims.
The International Life
The international life in Islam is the course of relationships between an Islamic state
or nation and other states or nations. Like the other aspects of the Islamic life, this one
stems from Divine guidance and follows the Godly pattern. It is laid down on the
following foundations:
1. An unshakable belief in the unity of mankind in origin, in human status, and in
aims (Qur’ an, 4:1; 7:189; 49:13);
2. Due respect for other people’ s interests and rights to life, honor and property, as
long as they do not encroach upon the rights of Muslims. This is because usurpation,
transgression and wrong of all kinds are strictly forbidden (2:190-193; 42:42);
3. Peace as the normal course of relations, with exchange of goodwill missions and
mutually honest endeavors for the sake of humanity in which all people share equally
(see above and Qur’ an, 8:61);
4. Intolerance of appeasement and encroachment in international relations. Should
someone be tempted to violate the rights of the Islamic State, or disturb its peace, or
endanger its security or exploit its peaceful policies, the State must hasten to defend
itself and suppress all attempts of such a nature. Only here, under such circumstances,
Islam justifies war. But even then there are moral principles to be followed to confine
its scope to a minimum and carry its course only as far as it is necessary. The Law of
war and peace in Islam is highly moral and unique, comprehensive and sound, it
deserves a special study by jurists and moralists alike, something which this work