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Chapter 86
ﺪﻋﻮﻟا زﺎﺠﻧإو ﺪﻬﻌﻟﺎﺑ ءﺎﻓﻮﻟا بﺎﺑ
Fulfillment of Promises
Allah, the Exalted, says:
"And fulfill (every) covenant. Verily! The covenant will be questioned about.
"And fulfill the Covenant of Allah (Bai`ah: pledge for Islam) when you have covenanted.''
"O you who believe! Fulfill (your) obligations.''
"O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do? Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that
which you do not do.''
ا لﻮﺳر نأ ، ﻪﻨﻋ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ﻲﺿر ةﺮﻳﺮه ﻲﺑأ ﻦﻋ
لﺎﻗ ﻢﱠﻠَﺳو ِﻪْﻴَﻠَﻋ ُﷲا ﻰّﻠَﺻ ﻪﱠﻠﻟ
ٌثﻼَﺛ ِﻖِﻓﺎَﻨُﻤﻟا ُﺔَﻳﺁ
: اذإ
َنﺎَﺧ ِﻦِﻤُﺗْؤا اذإو ، ﻒَﻠﺧأ َﺪﻋَو اذإو ، بﺬَآ ثﱠﺪَﺣ
ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ٌﻖﻔﺘﻣ
ﻢﻠﺴﻤﻟ ٍﺔﻳاور ﻲﻓ داز
ٌﻢِﻠﺴﻣ ُﻪﱠﻧَأ َﻢَﻋَزَو ﻰﱠﻠَﺻو َمﺎَﺻ ْنإو
Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said,
"Three are the
signs of a hypocrite: When he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is trusted, he
betrays his trust.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Another narration adds the words:
"Even if he observes Saum (fasts), performs Salat (prayer) and claims to be a
This Hadith has already been mentioned in the chapter about trusts. See Commentary on Hadith No.
201. Its repetition here is meant to stress the point that a hypocrite is recognized by breaking his promise.
لﺎﻗ ﻢﱠﻠَﺳو ِﻪْﻴَﻠَﻋ ُﷲا ﻰّﻠَﺻ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا لﻮﺳر ﱠنأ ، ﺎﻤﻬﻨﻋ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ﻲﺿر صﺎﻌﻟا ﻦﺑ وﺮﻤﻋ ﻦﺑ ِﻪﱠﻠﻟا ِﺪﺒﻋ ﻦﻋو
ًﺎﺼِﻟﺎَﺧ ًﺎﻘِﻓﺎَﻨُﻣ َنﺎَآ ِﻪﻴِﻓ ﱠﻦُآ ْﻦِﻣ ﻊﺑْرأ
ﱠﻦُﻬْﻨِﻣ ٌﺔَﻠﺼَﺧ ﻪﻴِﻓ ْﺖَﻧﺎَآ ْﻦﻣو
ﺎَﻬَﻋَﺪَﻳ ﻰﱠﺘَﺣ ِقﺎﻔﱢﻨﻟا ﻦِﻣ ﺔَﻠْﺼَﺧ ِﻪﻴِﻓ ْﺖَﻧﺎآ
َﺮَﺠَﻓ ﻢَﺻﺎَﺧ اذإَو ، رَﺪَﻏ َﺪَهﺎَﻋ اذإَو ، َبَﺬآ َثﱠﺪﺣ اَذإو ، نﺎَﺧ َﻦِﻤُﺗُؤا اذإ
ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ُﻖﻔﺘﻣ
`Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`as (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH)
"Four are the qualities which, when found in a person, make him a sheer hypocrite, and one who possesses one
of them, possesses one characteristic of hypocrisy until he abandons it. These are: When he is entrusted with
something, he betrays trust; when he speaks, he lies; when he promises, he acts treacherously; and when he argues,
he behaves in a very imprudent, insulting manner.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Theologically speaking, a disagreement between heart and tongue - or word and deed - about the
declaration of faith in Islam is defined as hypocrisy. In the lifetime of the Prophet (PBUH) there existed a group of
hypocrites whose traits of characters have been outlined in Ahadith. Humanly it is not possible to perceive malice
hidden in one's heart. Even Messenger of Allah (PBUH) hardly knew what lay in the hearts of people because,
despite having the exalted status of Prophethood, he was fundamentally a human. Allah, however, had revealed
hearts to him. But today, we have no error-free source to pick hypocrites from the ranks of believers. Quite
naturally, we fall back on the Hadith which provides us definite symptoms of the character and manners of
hypocrites so as to distinguish them from sincere Muslims.
`Ulama' say that there are two aspects of hypocrisy, relating to faith and practice. In the first case, a hypocrite
conceals his disbelief in his heart but verbally professes Islam. Anyone who belongs to this category of hypocrites
will be, as stated in the Qur'an:
"In the lowest depths of the Fire.''
(4:145). In the second case, a man does have faith
in his heart but in practice he portrays the characteristics of a hypocrite, unfortunately a majority of today's Muslims
practically behave like hypocrites and possess their propensities. It is this hypocritical attitude and moral
deficiencies of Muslims that have degraded them and made Islam unappealing. May Allah put Muslims on the right
لﺎﻗ ﻪﻨﻋ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ﻲﺿر ٍﺮﺑﺎﺟ ﻦﻋو
ﻢﱠﻠَﺳو ِﻪْﻴَﻠَﻋ ُﷲا ﻰّﻠَﺻ ﻲﺒﻨﻟا ﻲﻟ لﺎﻗ
ﻦْﻳَﺮْﺤَﺒْﻟا ُلﺎﻣ َءﺎﺟ ْﺪﻗ ﻮﻟ
اﺬَﻜَهَو اﺬﻜهو اﺬَﻜه َﻚُﺘْﻴَﻄْﻋأ
ُلﺎَﻣ َءﺎَﺟ ﺎﱠﻤَﻠَﻓ ، ﻢﱠﻠَﺳو ِﻪْﻴَﻠَﻋ ُﷲا ﻰّﻠَﺻ ﱡﻲﺒﻨﻟا َ
ﺾِﺒُﻗ ﻰﱠﺘَﺣ ِﻦْﻳَﺮْﺤﺒْﻟا ُلﺎﻣ ْءﻲﺠَﻳ ْﻢَﻠَﻓ
ىدﺎَﻨَﻓ ﻪﻨﻋ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ﻲﺿر ٍﺮْﻜَﺑ ﻮُﺑأ َﺮَﻣَأ ﻦْﻳ
ٌﻦْﻳَد ْوأ ٌةَﺪِﻋ ﻢﱠﻠَﺳو ِﻪْﻴَﻠَﻋ ُﷲا ﻰّﻠَﺻ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا لﻮﺳر َﺪْﻨﻋ ُﻪَﻟ َنﺎَآ ْﻦَﻣ