Page 12 - Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum

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After the “Elephant” incident, the people of Yemen, under the leadership of Ma‘dikarib bin Saif Dhu
Yazin Al-Himyari, and through Persian assistance, revolted against the Abyssinian (Ethiopian)
invaders, restored independence and appointed Ma‘dikarib as their king. However, Ma‘dikarib was
assassinated by an Abyssinian (Ethiopian) he used to have him around for service and protection.
The family of Dhu Yazin was thus deprived of royalty forever. Kisra, the Persian king, appointed a
Persian ruler over San‘a and thus made Yeme n a Persian colony. Persian rulers maintained rulership
of Yemen until Badhan, the last of them, embraced Islam in 638 A.D., thus terminating the Persian
domain over Yemen.
Ever since Korosh the Great (557-529 B.C.) united the Persians, they ruled Iraq and its
neighbourhood. Nobody could shake off their authority until Alexander the Great vanquished their
king Dara I and thus subdued the Persians in 326 B.C. Persian lands were thenceforth divided and
ruled by kings known as “the Kings of Sects”, an era which lasted until 230 A.D. Meanwhile, the
Qahtanians occupied some Iraqi territories, and were later followed by some ‘Adnanians who
managed to share some parts of Mesopotamia with them.
The Persians, under the leadership of Ardashir, who had established the Sasanian state in 226 A.D,
regained enough unity and power to subdue the Arabs living in the vicinity of their kingdom, and
force Quda‘a to leave for Syria , leaving the people of Heerah and Anbar under the Persian domain.
During the time of Ardashir, Juzaima Alwaddah exercised rulership over Heerah, Rabi‘a and Mudar,
and Mesopotamia. Ardashir had reckoned that it was impossible for him to rule the Arabs directly
and prevent them from attacking his borders unless he appointed as king one of them who enjoyed
support and power of his tribe. He had also seen that he could make use of them against the
Byzantine kings who always used to harass him. At the same time, the Arabs of Iraq could face the
Arabs of Syria who were in the hold of Byzantine kings. However, he deemed it fit to keep a Persian
battalion under command of the king of Heerah to be used against those Arabs who might rebel
against him.
After the death of Juzaima around 268 A.D., ‘Amr bin ‘Adi bin Nasr Al-Lakhmi was appointed as king
by the Persian King Sabour bin Ardashir. ‘Amr was the first of the Lakhmi kings who ruled Heerah
until the Persians appointed Qabaz bin Fairuz in whose reign appeared someone called Mazdak, who
called for dissoluteness in social life. Qabaz, and many of his subjects, embraced Mazdak’s religion
and even called upon the king of Heerah, Al-Munzir bin Ma’ As-Sama’, to follow after. When the
latter, because of his pride and self-respect, rejected their orders, Qabaz discharged him and
nominated Harith bin ‘Amr bin Hajar Al-Kindi, who had accepted the Mazdaki doctrine.
No sooner did Kisra Anu Shairwan succeed Qabaz than he, due to hatred of Mazdak’s philosophy,
killed Mazdak and many of his followers, restored Munzir to the throne of Heerah and gave orders to
summon under arrest Harith who sought refuge with Al-Kalb tribe where he spent the rest of his life.
Sons of Al-Munzir bin Ma’ As-Sama’ maintained kingship a long time until An-Nu‘man bin Al-Munzir
took over. Because of a calumny borne by Zaid bin ‘Adi Al-‘Abbadi, the Persian king got angry with
An-Nu‘man and summoned him to his palace. An-Nu‘man went secretly to Hani bin Mas‘ud, chief of
Shaiban tribe, and left his wealth and family under the latter’s protection, and then presented
himself before the Persian king, who immediately threw him into prison where he perished. Kisra,
then, appointed Eyas bin Qubaisa At-Ta’i as king of Heerah. Eyas was ordered to tell Hani bin Mas‘ud
to deliver An-Nu‘man’s charge up to Kisra. No sooner than had the Persian king received the
fanatically motivated rejection on the part of the Arab chief, he declared war against the tribe of
Shaiban and mobilized his troops and warriors under the leadership of King Eyas to a place called
Dhee Qar which witnessed a most furious battle wherein the Persians were severely routed by the
Arabs for the first time in history. That was very soon after the birth of Prophet Muhammad Õáì
Çááå Úáíå æÓáã eight months after Eyas bin Qubaisah’s rise to power over Heerah.
After Eyas, a Persian ruler was appointed over Heerah, but in 632 A.D. the authority there returned
to the family of Lukhm when Al-Munzir Al-Ma‘rur took over. Hardly had the latter’s reign lasted for
eight months when Khalid bin Al-Waleed fell upon him with Muslim soldiers.
In the process of the tribal emigrations, some septs of Quda‘a reached the borders of Syria where
they settled down. They belonged to the family of Sulaih bin Halwan, of whose offspring were the
sons of Duj‘am bin Sulaih known as Ad-Duja‘ima. Such septs of Quda‘a were used by the Byzantines
in the defence of the Byzantine borders against both Arab Bedouin raiders and the Persians, and
enjoyed autonomy for a considerable phase of time which is said to have lasted for the whole
second century A.D. One of their most famous kings was Zyiad bin Al-Habula. Their authority
however came to an end upon defeat by the Ghassanides who were consequently granted the proxy
rulership over the Arabs of Syria and had Dumat Al-Jandal as their headquarters, which lasted until
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