Page 154 - Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum

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give glad tidings to the believers in Makkah, women and men, that the conquest was approaching
and Islam was surely to prevail because Allâh would verily establish His religion in Makkah. ‘Uthman
also assured them that after the performance of ceremonies they would soon depart peacefully, but
the Quraishites were adamant and not prepared to grant them the permission to visit Al-Ka‘bah.
They, however, offered ‘Uthman the permission to perform the pilgrimage, if he so desired in his
individual capacity, but ‘Uthman declined the offer saying: “How is it possible that I avail myself of
this opportunity, when the Prophet (Peace be upon him) is denied of it?” The Muslims anxiously
waited for the arrival of ‘Uthman with mingled feelings of fear and anxiety. But his arrival was
considerably delayed and a foul play was suspected on the part of Quraish. The Muslims were
greatly worried and took a solemn pledge at the hand of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) that they
would sacrifice their lives to avenge the death of their Companion and stand firmly by their master,
Muhammad (Peace be upon him), under all conditions. This pledge goes by the name of
Bay‘at Ar-
(a covenant of fealty). The first men to take a pledge were Abu Sinan Al-Asadi and Salamah
bin Al-Akwa‘, who gave a solemn promise to die in the cause of Truth three times, at the front of the
army, in the middle and in the rear. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) caught his left hand on behalf
of ‘Uthman. This fealty was sworn under a tree, with ‘Umar holding the Prophet’s hand and Ma‘qil
bin Yasar holding a branch of the tree up. The Noble Qur’ân has referred to this pledge in the
following words:
“Indeed, Allâh was pleased with the believers when they gave their
(pledge) to you
[O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)] under the tree.” [48:18]
When Quraish saw the firm determination of the Muslims to shed the last drop of blood for the
defence of their Faith, they came to their senses and realized that Muhammad’s followers could not
be cowed down by these tactics. After some further interchange of messages they agreed to
conclude a treaty of reconciliation and peace with the Muslims. The clauses of the said treaty go as
1. The Muslims shall return this time and come back next year, but they shall not stay in
Makkah for more than three days.
2. They shall not come back armed but can bring with them swords only sheathed in scabbards
and these shall be kept in bags.
3. War activities shall be suspended for ten years, during which both parties will live in full
security and neither will raise sword against the other.
4. If anyone from Quraish goes over to Muhammad (Peace be upon him) without his guardian’s
permission, he should be sent back to Quraish, but should any of Muhammad’s followers
return to Quraish, he shall not be sent back.
5. Whosoever to join Muhammad (Peace be upon him), or enter into treaty with him, should
have the liberty to do so; and likewise whosoever wishes to join Quraish, or enter into treaty
with them, should be allowed to do so.
Some dispute arose with regard to the preamble. For example, when the agreement was to be
committed to writing, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, who acted as a scribe began with the words:
Bismillâh ir-
Rahman ir-Raheem,
i.e., “In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful” but the
Makkan plenipotentiary, Suhail bin ‘Amr declared that he knew nothing about
insisted upon the customary formula
Bi-ismika Allâhumma,
i.e., “In Your Name, O Allâh!” The
Muslims grumbled with uneasiness but the Prophet (Peace be upon him) agreed. He then went on to
dictate, “This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allâh has agreed to with Suhail bin ‘Amr.” Upon
this Suhail again protested: “Had we acknowledged you as Prophet, we would not have debarred
you from the Sacred House, nor fought against you. Write your own name and the name of your
father.” The Muslims grumbled as before and refused to consent to the change. The Prophet (Peace
be upon him), however, in the larger interest of Islam, attached no importance to such an
insignificant detail, erased the words himself, and dictated instead: “Muhammad, the son of
‘Abdullah.” Soon after this treaty, Khuza‘a clan, a former ally of Banu Hashim, joined the ranks of
Muhammad (Peace be upon him), and Banu Bakr sided with Quraish.
It was during this time while the treaty was being written that Abu Jandal, Suhail’s son, appeared on
the scene. He was brutally chained and was staggering with privation and fatigue. The Prophet
(Peace be upon him) and his Companions were moved to pity and tried to secure his release but
Suhail was adamant and said: “To signify that you are faithful to your contract, an opportunity has
just arrived.” The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: “But the treaty was not signed when your son
entered the camp.” Upon this, he burst forth and said, “but the terms of the treaty were agreed
upon.” It was indeed an anxious moment. On the one hand, Abu Jandal was lamenting at the top of
his voice, “Am I to be returned to the polytheists that they might entice me from my religion, O
Muslims!” but, on the other hand, the faithful engagement was also considered to be necessary,
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