Abu Sumayyah Muhammad Khan&Abu Maryam Isma'eel Alarcon
© Copyright www.al-manhaj.com
The official web site of:
URL: www.al-manhaj.com E-mail: email@example.com Tel/Fax: (718) 849-0378 Cell: (917) 287-1331
The following document is an on-line book publishing of www.al-manhaj.com. This book was formatted and designed specifically for being placed on the Web and for its easy and convenient distribution. At the time of this e-book publishing, we are not aware of any other book similar to it, in terms of its translation from its original Arabic source. Since this book was prepared for free on-line distribution we grant permission for it to be printed, disbursed, photocopied, reproduced and/or distributed by electronic means for the purpose of spreading its content and not for the purpose of gaining a profit, unless a specific request is sent to the publishers and permission is granted.
Foreword… …………………………………………….…...……………... 5 An Autobiography of Shaikh Usaamah Al-Qoosee……..……..………….. 6 Introduction… ……………………….….……..…………………..………. 10 The Obligation of Fasting… …..…………………...……….……………... 12 Taqwaa: The Wisdom Behind Fasting.… ..……..………..……………….. 14 The Rulings of Fasting….………………….……….……………….….…. 15 Some Things a Fasting Person is allowed to do…….……...…….……….. 17 Recommended Acts in Fasting… .…………...……...……...…….……….. 19 The Last Ten Nights of Ramadaan………….. ……...……...…….……….. 20 The 'Eid Prayer and Zakaat-ul-Fitr… …………...……..…...…….……….. 22 Some Authentic Ahaadeeth about Fasting………………………………… 24 Some Weak Ahaadeeth about Fasting… …………………………..……… 26 A Fatwa on Determining the Beginning and End of Ramadaan… …….…. 28
Verily all praise is due to Allaah, we praise Him, we seek His assistance and we ask for His forgiveness. And we seek refuge in Allaah from the evils of our selves and the evils of our actions. Whoever Allaah guides none can lead him astray and whoever is led astray, none can guide Him. I testify that there is no god that has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone and with no partner. And I testify that Muhammad is His slave and final messenger.
The book before you is a translation of a small pocket-size booklet written by Shaikh Usaamah Al-Qoosee, which was given the title "As-Siyaam wa Ahkaamuhu" (Fasting and Its Rulings). We embarked on the project of translating, formatting and printing this book in the English Language for the month of Ramadaan (December 2000). Two thousand copies of this book were printed by the second week of Ramadaan and over a thousand were distributed for free. A portion of the remaining books were sold to some local bookstores to raise funds, while a few remaining copies stayed with us for our records. During that same month of Ramadaan, we made this book available over the Internet as a free downloadable book in PDF (Acrobat) format. By the Grace of Allaah, many Muslims downloaded the book and benefited from it greatly.
We have taken the original book and reformatted it so that it can be better viewed over the Internet as well as from its downloaded file. Some of the changes we made were replacing certain fonts for others, adding headings for each section, dividing sections up into their own pages, and providing a Table of Contents that links to each section chosen. We have also added the author's autobiography to add to the benefits of this book. Lastly, as with all of our e-books, we provided front and back covers, so that our readers may assemble their books at their own convenience and store it in their libraries along with their other Islaamic books.
Lastly, we hope that this book serves as a source of benefit for the Muslim ummah and that it is a cause for them to be guided to the truth and to the way of worshipping Allaah correctly. We also ask Allaah that He place this noble work on the scale of good deeds of all those who were involved in its production and distribution. We hope that everyone that reads this can pass it on to their Muslim brothers and sisters, whether by printing them a copy or giving them the book file, so that they too can partake in the benefit.
Written by: Isma'eel Alarcon For The Salafi Society of North America On April 9, 2001
My Name and Lineage:
Usaamah Ibn 'Abd-il-Lateef Ibn Mahmood Al-Qoosee Al-Hajaajee
My Family Lineage:
It traces back to Abul-Hajaaj Al-Aqsaree, whose name was Yusuf Ibn 'Abd-ir-Raheem Ibn Ghazee Al-Qurshee.1 May Allaah free him of the polytheistic and innovatory practices that occur at his gravesite.
I was born in the morning of the Day of 'Arafah in 1373H (7/8/1954) in Cairo, Egypt.
I was born in Egypt, in the Muski area in Shiyaadah Al-Munaasarah2 behind Daar Al-Kutub. 3 And I was brought up in the house of my mother's father for the period of a year. Then my father moved to a residence in the Hadaa'iq Al-Qubbah area. This is where I grew up and spent the length of my youth, adolescence and early adulthood. During this time, I pursued my general grade-levels studies in the Nuqraashi School, which have the pattern of primary level (6 years), then secondary level (3 years), and then high school level (3 years). Thereafter, I obtained entrance into a college for medicine in the University of 'Ain Shams, where I remained for five years studying medicine. During this period in time, I learned Tajweed from some of my colleagues at school, and I memorized what I was able to of the Qur'aan. The Correct Path of Islaam was not wholly clear to me at that time due to the large amount of Hizbees (partisans), activists, Takfeerees, Sufis and so on that were around me. Then I received the opportunity to make 'Umrah along with my classmates on a college trip, during the month of Ramadaan in 1397H (1977 CE). So this served as the start of my search for knowledge and my being guided to the path of the Salaf As-Saalih.
My Search for Knowledge:
In Makkah, I met some students of knowledge from Saudi Arabia and other parts of the world. In turn, they introduced me to some of the scholars and mashaayikh, and I began to understand that there was something called talab-ul-'ilm (Seeking Knowledge). So I attended some classes in the Haram at Makkah, taught by Shaikh Badee'-ud-Deen Ar-Raashidee As-Sindee, the Muhaddith of the land of Sind, may Allaah have mercy on him. I also visited his house and his library, which was filled with remarkable books and non-printed manuscripts. After Ramadaan, I moved to the city of Madeenah and there I met Shaikh Abee 'Abd-ir-Rahmaan Muqbil Ibn Haadee Al-Waadi'ee, may Allaah preserve him, the Muhaddith of the lands of Yemen. At that time, he was studying in the advanced-levels section in the Islaamic University of Madeenah. And he was
1 This is how Adh-Dhahabee mentioned it in his book Siyar A'alaam An-Nubalaa (pg. 23-148) and hedescribed him as being the "Big One", the "Zaahid."2 This is an area within the Muski location.
3 This is a famous landmark in Egypt, where people used to sell books, hence its name Daar Al-Kutub(Place of the Books). Now it is mostly reserved for administrative offices.
very close to finishing his treatise on the two books "Al-Ilzaamaat" and "At-Tatabbu'" of Imaam Ad-Daaraqutnee, may Allaah have mercy on him. I began to attend his classes on the book Jaami' At-Tirmidhee, but it was as if I was hearing mysterious words and riddles!
Then I traveled to Qaseem and there I met the Shaikh, the Haafidh, the Muhaddith of the lands of Najd, 'Abdullaah Ad-Duwaish, may Allaah have mercy on him. And I attended some of his gatherings in his home in the city of Buraidah. I was amazed by his abstinence (of this world) his humbleness, his diligence, his striving and his patience with seeking and acquiring knowledge (by reading and studying). This was such that he almost lost his eyesight (because of his studies) while in the prime of his youth, and it was to the extent that when I saw him I imagined he was much older than me, whereas he was my same age. At that time, he was memorizing the Six Books (of the Sunnah) 4 completely with their chains of narration and their texts. And he was at the point of completing his memorization of the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad. And at the same time, he was studying Imaam Muslim's introduction to his Saheeh. Meanwhile, I was amazed and overcome at what I saw and heard. I could not get myself to believe that such a person existed in our world. After this, I returned to Madeenah and Makkah and there I would frequent the classes of our Shaikh, Shaikh Muqbil at his house in Madeenah time after time.
During the time I spent in Saudi Arabia, I resolved on making two decisions, of which only one of them came through. The first was to abandon continuing my studies in the field of medicine and to instead preoccupy myself with studying the Islaamic sciences. And the second was to stay permanently in Madeenah, the city of Allaah's Messenger, but this did not come through. So I returned to Egypt in 1398H (1978 CE) because Saudi Arabia did not grant me the iqaamah (residential status) to remain there. Nevertheless, I did not go back on my other resolution to study the Islaamic sciences, especially since I had gotten a taste of its sweetness during that year.
I also forgot to mention that while making Hajj that year, Allaah enabled me to meet the Shaikh, the Imaam, the Muhaddith of the lands of Shaam, rather the Muhaddith of the whole world, Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee, may Allaah have mercy on him, several times in both Makkah and Madeenah. This included one time in which I saw him face to face at the place where he was staying in Madeenah. This was during the month of Thul-Hijjah, 1397AH. I had seen him before about a year or two ago - I don't recall now - when the Shaikh came to Egypt for purposes of giving Da'wah, due to which he gave a number of lectures. However, I was far away from him, sitting in the back of the masjid, and I was not able to get a good look at him. Also, another thing that my Lord blessed me with that year I made the Islaamic Hajj was that I memorized much of the Qur'aan, such that I completed a month of memorizing and I had memorized close to eight (8) ajzaa (parts) of the Qur'aan in a month.
After returning to Egypt, I married and then moved to Yemen towards the end of the year 1399H (1979 CE), when news reached me that our Shaikh, Abu 'Abd-ir-Rahmaan (Muqbil Ibn Haadee) returned to his country of Yemen. So I traveled to him along with my wife, and I stayed with him for almost a complete year drinking from his fountain of knowledge, night and day. And I would
4 Such as Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, Saheeh Muslim and the Sunans of An-Nasaa'ee, At-Tirmidhee, Ibn Maajah and Abu Dawood.
not separate from him except when I had to sleep at night. This was the happiest year of my life, in which I accompanied the Shaikh for almost a complete year, seeking to study Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree under him. And he (Shaikh Muqbil) agreed to this, so this was the beginning of the class, which the Shaikh continued to teach after many years, even after my journey from Yemen to Egypt in 1405H (1985).
During this year, I would attend all of the Shaikh's classes - the class on Tafseer Ibn Katheer after Fajr, the class on Jaami' At-Tirmidhee in the forenoon, the class on Sunan Abee Dawood after Dhuhr, the class on 'Aqeedah At-Tahaawiyyah with its explanation by Ibn Abee Al-'Izz and the explanation of Qatr-un-Nadaa of Ibn Hishaam from after 'Asr to just before Maghrib. Then there was a class on Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree between Maghrib and 'Ishaa, and a class on Saheeh Muslim after 'Ishaa. And apart form this, I would research hadeeth from the books of the Sunnah in the Shaikh's library in between these classes every time I got the chance to do so. And I would ask the Shaikh on what I found difficulty with concerning chains of narration, narrators and the ahaadeeth. After the year's end, some people from the neighboring towns, close to the area of the Shaikh, came requesting for one of his students to go and teach them and their children. The Shaikh selected me for this task, so I traveled to their town called Wadi Al-Kunaa, and I stayed with them for the length of five years, teaching and acquiring what knowledge of the Islamic sciences I could from my studies of the Books of the Sunnah and my research with them.
I returned to Egypt in 1405H (1985). During the time I had spent in Yemen, which was six years in total, I wrote a book about the Adhaan. I finished transcribing it into printable form when I reached Egypt and the book was printed in 1408H (1987). During this time, I was already back in Cairo, learning, teaching and spreading this blessed Salafee Da'wah as much as I was able to.
In Ramadaan of 1418H (1999), I made 'Umrah and during this time, I met Shaikh Rabee' Ibn Haadee Al-Madkhalee, may Allaah preserve him, in Madeenah. Also, my Lord blessed me by allowing me the ability to see Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-'Uthaimeen in the Haram (Ka'bah) of Makkah, who was teaching a class on the second floor. Then, my Lord added to my blessing by allowing me to meet with Shaikh 'Abdul-'Azeez Ibn 'Abdillaah Ibn Baaz in his office in Makkah. This was a private meeting that was held on the evening of the 26th day of Ramadaan, after 'Asr to just before Maghrib. This was the first time that I saw the Shaikh and the last time, may Allaah have mercy on him. On this trip, I also met the noble brother, Shaikh 'Alee Ibn Hasan Al-Halabee for the first time, also in the Haram. And I also met the noble brother Dr. Baasim Ibn Faisal Al-Jawabirah and the noble brother, Dr. Khaalid Ibn 'Alee Al-'Anbaree.
Then Allaah enabled me to make another 'Umrah in the month of Rajab 1420 H, during which time I met many scholars and students of knowledge. Among them was Shaikh 'Abdul-Muhsin Ibn Hamd Al-'Abbaad Al-Badr, who I saw in his classes and I also visited him in his home in Madeenah. Also, there was the noble shaikh, Faalih Ibn Naafi' Al-Harbee and Shaikh Dr. Ibraaheem Ibn 'Aamir Ar-Ruhailee, who invited me for dinner with him, where I also met with Shaikh Dr. Saalih As-Suhaimee. During this journey, I also met with the noble brother 'Abdul-Malik Ibn Ahmad Ramadaanee Al-Jazaa'iree in Madeenah. Then in Makkah, I visited our Shaikh, Rabee' Ibn Haadee Al-Madkhalee and there I met Shaikh 'Umar Bazmool. I also attended the classes of Shaikh Saalih Al-'Abood and Shaikh Husain Aali Shaikh in the Prophet's Mosque.
And when in Makkah, I attended the classes on Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree given by Shaikh Wasiyyullaah 'Abaasee.
During my trips to the United States, I met Dr. Saalih Ibn Ghaanim As-Sadlaan, Shaikh Saleem Al-Hilaalee, and Shaikh Muhammad Musa Nasr.
From the people of knowledge whom I met in Egypt were Shaikh Muhammad 'Alee 'Abdur-Raheem, rahimahullaah, the previous president of Jamaa'at Ansaar As-Sunnah Al-Muhammadiyyah in Egypt, and also Shaikh Muhammad Ibn 'Abdil-Wahhaab Ibn Marzooq Al-Bannaa, may Allaah preserve him.
Allaah also blessed me to meet many people of knowledge and students of knowledge, other than those mentioned above and who carry the Da'wah in the east and the west, the amount of which I cannot account for due to their large number. And Allaah is sufficient for me and for them, and He alone is the One who guides to the Straight Path.
The Book of Adhaan Fasting and Its Rulings (which is the present book before you) Guard your Covenants
Written by Abu Haatim Usaamah Ibn 'Abdil-Lateef Al-Qoosee at the beginning of Rabee'-ul-Awwal 1421H at the request of the brothers in charge of SSNA
Verily, all praise is due to Allaah, we praise Him, we ask for His help and we seek His forgiveness. And we seek refuge in Allaah from the evils within ourselves and the evils of our actions. Whomsoever Allaah guides, there is no one that can lead him astray. And whomsoever is led astray, there is no one that can guide him. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah – He is alone and with no partner. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His messenger.
To proceed: Fasting is one of the aspects of worship that is done entirely for Allaah, in which a Muslim responds to the rulings of his Lord – the One, the Only – by abstaining from food, drink and sexual intercourse with his wife during the day, believing that this abstaining is obedience to Allaah. So he renews his covenant with Allaah through this fast, confirming that the only reason for his existence in this life is to actualize complete servitude to the One who created him and all that exists – the One who says in His Book:
“I have not created the Jinn and Mankind except that they should worship Me.” [Surah Adh-Dhaariyaat: 56]
This is the absolute servitude with its complete and comprehensive understanding, which is displayed in the servant’s responding to the Way of his Lord and the Laws of his Creator in every small and big matter from the affairs of his life, whether in knowledge (belief) or action (sayings and doings). Allaah says:
“Say: ‘Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allaah, Lord of the worlds. He has no partner. And that was what I was commanded (with) and I am the first of the Muslims.’” [Surah Al-An’aam: 162-163]
This servitude – with the previously mentioned understanding – is seen at times in the prostration of the person praying, and at times it is seen in the hunger and thirst of the one fasting. It is seen at times in the supplication of a distressed person when he turns away from calling the people, towards calling Allaah. At other times, it is seen when the pilgrim, making Hajj, throws pebbles in one of the stations of (Hajj) and in a woman’s covering of her body and adornment. And sometimes it is seen in the consummation of the marriage between a young Muslim male and female, so that it could be a means for lowering their gazes and protecting their private parts. And at times it is seen in the Islamic punishment that is established by the ruler on a person that has committed adultery or theft. It is seen when someone removes an obstacle from the road or when a man who has money, which he is obligated to pay Zakaat on, gives his due Zakaat. It is seen at times when the wife obeys her husband and behaves well with him, and at times in the obedience and good treatment of a child to his parents. And sometimes it is seen in showing compassion and affection to an orphan, and at times it is seen in giving water to a thirsty dog, etc.
Indeed these things show the greatness of this Religion, which many, many people are ignorant about:
“This is the (true) straight Religion, but most men know not.” [Surah Yusuf: 40]
With this understanding and from this description of greatness, I will extend my humble words on Fasting and Its Rulings , hoping that Allaah accepts it and that the Muslims answer to it (by acting on it) as well as benefit from it. And I ask Allaah that he rectify the condition of the Muslims by it and that He return them to the truth. Indeed Allaah has power over that and is able to do it. I put my trust in Him and to Him I repent.
In the name of Allaah, the most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy
Fasting is an obligation, which Allaah prescribed on every Muslim5 that is sane and has reached the age of puberty. Allaah says:
"O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, in order that you may attain Taqwaa." [Surah Al-Baqarah: 183]
The specified time when it becomes obligatory is the month of Ramadaan of every year. Allaah says:
“The month of Ramadaan in which was revealed the Qur'aan, a guidance for mankind and a clear proof for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadaan), then he must observe the Fast (that month)." [Surah Al-Baqarah: 185]
Fasting in the month of Ramadaan is one of the pillars of Islaam. The Prophet, sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, said: “Islam is built on five things: (1) Testifying that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, (2) Establishing the Prayer, (3) Giving the Zakaat, (4) Performing Hajj, and (5) Fasting in
Ramadaan.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
So whoever breaks his fast intentionally in the month of Ramadaan without a valid Islamic excuse, he has destroyed one of the pillars of Islaam and stepped into the realm of great danger.
The person who is fasting abstains from food, drink and sexual intercourse with his wife – intending6 worship by that – from dawn until sunset. So when the sun sets, all of these things become permissible for him.
5 The word “Muslim” includes both male and female.
6 The place for the intention is the heart, so it should not be pronounced (on the tongue).
“It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of Fasting. They are a covering for you and you are a covering for them.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 187]
And Allaah says in the same ayah:
“And eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night). Then complete your fast until the nightfall." [Surah Al-Baqarah: 187]
Taqwaa7 is one of the greatest goals and most important reasons behind fasting. Allaah says:
"O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, in order that you may attain Taqwaa." [Surah Al-Baqarah: 183]
And the Prophet, sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, said: “Fasting is a shield.”8 [Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree]
So fasting prevents a person from committing what Allaah hates, thus protecting him from Allaah's punishment. If the person that is fasting is able to prevent himself from what is generally permissible for him – such as food, drink and sexual relations with his wife – he will be more able and likely to prevent himself from those things generally forbidden for him, such as lying, backbiting, slandering, cursing, vain passing of time 9 and bad behavior. Therefore, the one who does not understand this matter will not achieve anything from his fasting, except hunger and thirst.
The Prophet, sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, said: “If one of you is fasting, he should not use obscene language nor shout nor act ignorantly.10 And if someone speaks abusively to him or wants to fight with him, he should say: 'I am fasting, I am fasting.'” [Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree]
And the Prophet, sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, said: “Whoever does not abstain from false speech and acting upon that (false speech), Allaah is not in need of him leaving his food and his drink.” [Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree]
7 [Editor's Note: Taqwaa means to protect oneself from doing anything that Allaah hates or is not pleased with. It is to do what Allaah has commanded and to abstain from what Allaah has forbidden. So fasting builds Taqwaa since by fasting one abstains from the forbidden things and thus protects himself from sins and from gaining Allaah's anger – and this is Taqwaa.]8 The word used in this hadeeth “junnah” means: fortification, a shield and protection. 9 From the prohibited types of vain passing of time is: Being obsessed with entertainment tools and musical instruments, such as the television and videos, which are used to watch what Allaah hates such as dancing, nudity, intermingling (between the sexes) and wickedness. And beware O Muslim of being deceived by something called religious films and network series (broadcasted over the TV and radio), for they are from the footsteps of the Devil, like poison in honey.
Everything that Allaah and His Messenger have prohibited from vile manners, then that is from ignorance.
A sick person and a traveler11 are allowed to break their fast in Ramadaan. They must make up the days that they missed (by fasting other days) at a later time, even if the days are not fasted consecutively. Allaah says:
“Whoever is ill or on a journey, then (he may break the fast and instead fast) the same number of days missed, on other days. Allaah wishes for you ease and He does not want to make things difficult for you." [Surah Al-Baqarah: 185]
Those who are not able to fast, such as the elderly man and elderly woman (past age of childbearing),12 may break their fast and instead feed a needy person for every day that is missed. This is due to their falling under the saying of Allaah:
“And as for those who cannot fast (because of difficulty) they may feed a needy person (for each day missed)” based on the interpretation (of this ayah) found in authentic narrations of some of the Companions. As a matter of fact, this happened to one of the Companions, for Anas
Ibn Maalik, radyAllaah 'anhu, reported that he was weak one year and could not fast. So he made a bowl of porridge and called thirty needy people and fed them." [Reported by Ad-Daraqutnee with an authentic chain of narration]
If a pregnant woman or a breast-feeding woman fears for herself or for her children, she may break her fast and instead feed a needy person for each day missed. This is based on her falling under the generality of the ruling found in the previous ayah. And according to the most correct opinion,13 these two types of women do not have to make up for the missed days of fasting (i.e. by fasting other days).
11 No one is permitted to break the fast and make it up another day except these two, since Allaah did not mention a text for anyone besides them. “And your Lord is not forgetful.” So the fatwa given by some contemporary (scholars) that it is permitted for school and college students to break their fast during examination times, and also for those people who have hard-labor occupations is not correct. 12 And likewise the sick person that has a chronic disease – who is not able to fast with it, nor is it expected that he will be cured in the confines of the means that Allaah has enabled. 13 This is the opinion of Ibn ‘Abbaas and Ibn’Umar, radyAllaahu 'anhumaa. And it is not known that any of the other Companions opposed them in that. For a further discussion on this, refer to the book “Fasting in Ramadaan” of Shaikh Saleem Al-Hilaalee and ‘Alee Hasan ‘Alee Abdul Hameed Al-Halabee.
It is not permissible for a menstruating woman and a postpartum bleeding woman to observe the fast until they stop bleeding. So when they stop bleeding, they must make up for the days of fasting they missed. And they do not have to make up for the prayers they missed during that time,14 as is authentically established in the Prophet's Sunnah, where he said: "Is it not true that when a woman is menstruating, she neither prays nor fasts?" [Part of a hadeeth reported by Al-Bukhaaree]
Anyone that eats or drinks out of forgetfulness is not obligated to make up for a missed day or to expiate. Rather, he must just complete his fasting (for that day). The Prophet, sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, said: “Whoever forgets while he is fasting and eats or drinks, then let him complete his fast, for it was indeed Allaah who fed him and gave him to drink.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
The ruling for anyone that breaks the fast due to a mistake15 or because he is forced to is the same ruling as that of the one who breaks his fast out of forgetfulness. This is based on the generality of the Prophet's, sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, saying: “Verily, Allaah has excused for my ummah (sins they commit due to) mistakes, forgetfulness and what they are forced to do.”
[Reported by Ibn Maajah and others, and it is authentic due to all of its paths of narration]
Whoever eats or drinks intentionally during the day in Ramadaan without any valid excuse that allows him to do that has committed a sin and has nullified his fast. It is obligatory on him to repent from that great sin and to make up that missed day of fasting.
Anyone that has sexual intercourse with his wife during the day in Ramadaan, while they are both fasting, both of their fasts are broken. And it is obligatory for both of them or (perhaps) one of them to repent. And they must both make up that broken day of fasting and he must do the Expiation (kaffaarah). The Expiation is freeing a slave. If it is not possible to find a slave, then he must fast two consecutive months. If he is not able to do that, then he must feed sixty needy people, as is stated in the story of the man who had sexual intercourse with his wife during the day in Ramadaan. [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree]
And in some narrations of the hadeeth, other than that of Al-Bukhaaree's, there is a command to make up for the missed day of fasting. [Authenticated by Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr in Fath-ul-Baaree]
There is no harm in a person tasting food with his tongue, while he is fasting, on the condition that nothing enters (his throat). This is since it is not truthful to say that a person who tastes food is in fact eating or drinking.
14 What some women do – such as intentionally leaving off food and drink during the condition of menses, then taking a sip of water before sunset – has no basis to it. Rather it is in opposition to the Sunnah.15 Such as the one who thinks it is still nighttime and thus eats. Then it becomes clear to him that the sun has risen, and that it is Fajr. Or like the one who hears the Aadhaan over the radio and thus breaks his fast, but finds out that it is an Adhaan from another country that has a different timing.