Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi Rahmatullah Alaih
|Table of Contents|
|The Rights of Husband|
|The Rights of Parents|
|The Rights of Muslims|
|Rights of the Neighbour|
|Rights of the Traveling Companion|
|Rights of the Weak and Old|
|Rights of Human beings|
|Rights of Animals|
|The Virtues and Rights of Marriage|
Allah TaAla has given great rights to the husband and has attached a lot of virtue to him. Pleasing the husband and keeping him happy is a great act of ‘ibadah and displeasing him or keeping him unhappy is a major sin.
One of the rights of the husband is that the wife should not keep any optional fasts nor offer any optional salat in his presence without his permission. Among the rights of the husband is that she should not remain in an untidy, dishevelled state. Instead, she should always remain clean and beautiful for her husband. In fact, if she remains untidy and dishevelled despite her husband ordering her to remain clean, he has the right of beating her (lightly) in order that she may obey him. Another right of the husband is that she should not leave the house without his permission irrespective of whether it be the house of a friend, relative or anyone else.
1. You should not cause them any harm even if they commit any excesses.
Meet her with respect. If she is in need of money and you are able to help her, then help her.
Since she is an associate of your father, and we have been commanded to be kind and friendly to our parents' associates, the step-mother, therefore, also has certain rights over you as mentioned previously.
In the light of the Hadith, the elder brother is similar to one's father. From this we can deduce that the younger brother is similar to one's children. Based on this, they will have rights similar to those of parents and children. The elder sister and the younger sister should also be treated in the same manner.
If any of your blood relatives is in need and is unable to earn, help him out with his expenses according to your financial position. Go and meet them occasionally. Do not cutoff relations with them. In fact, even if they cause you harm, it will be best for you to exercise patience.
In the Quran, Allah Ta'ala has mentioned the in-laws together with one's lineage. We learn from this that the father-in-law, mother-in-law, wife's brother, sister's husband, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, the previous children of the wife, the previous children of the husband - all of these have certain rights. Therefore, you have to be more considerate to them as opposed to others.
Those people who are in need, such as orphans, widows, the weak, the poor, the sick, the cripple, travellers, beggars, etc. have additional rights. They are:
If there is any shortcoming in fulfilling the rights of a person, fulfil that which can be fulfilled or else, ask for forgiveness. For example, you are still owing someone some money or you cheated someone, etc. (In such a case you should try and pay the debt, but if you cannot do so, then seek forgiveness from the person). As for the right which can only be forgiven, seek forgiveness for it, e.g. you spoke ill of a person or beat him (In such a case, it is obvious that you cannot pay him anything. Instead, you will have to seek his forgiveness).
If, due to some reason, you cannot fulfil their rights nor can you seek their forgiveness, then you should continue making dua for these people. It is possible that on the day of judgement Allah Ta'ala will try and influence them to forgive you. However, later if you are in a position to fulfil their rights or seek their forgiveness, then do not hesitate in doing so.
As for the rights that are due to you and there is a hope of their being fulfilled, then be lenient when asking for them. As for those where there is no hope of their being fulfilled or, they are such that they cannot be fulfilled, such as ghibah, then although there is the hope of your receiving rewards in return for them on the day of judgement, however, more reward has been mentioned with regard to forgiving them in this world. It will be much better if you forgive them completely or absolve them completely. This is especially when the person earnestly seeks forgiveness from you.
comes when a Muslim is able to bear the displeasure of Allah and His Rasûl sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.
It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "Marry so that I can be proud (of your numbers) on the day of judgement over the other nations." In other words, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam likes his ’ummah to be in large numbers and more than the other nations. If this happens, his ’ummah will be carrying out more good deeds, and in so doing he will receive more rewards and gain closer proximity to Allah Ta'ala. This is because whoever from his ’ummah does good deeds, does so through his teachings. Therefore, the more people who act on his teachings, the more reward he will receive for conveying those teachings. We also learn from this that whenever and however possible, we should undertake to carry out those tasks and actions that will take us closer to Allah Ta'ala, and that we should not display any laziness in this regard.
It is mentioned in a Hadith that on the day of judgement the people will be standing in 120 lines. Out of these, 40 lines of people will be from the other nations while 80 lines of people will be from the ’ummah of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. Glory be to Allah! How beloved Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is to Him.
The one who is able to (fulfil the rights of a wife) should marry. As for the one who does not have sufficient wealth (to fulfil the rights of a wife), he should fast. That is, he should fast so that there will be a decrease in his desires. Fasting is actually a means of curbing his desires. If a person does not have a very dire need for women, and instead has an average need, and he is able to pay for her basic necessities, then nikah is sunnat-e-mu’akkadah for such a person. As for the person who has a very urgent need, nikah will be fard upon him. This is because there is a fear that he will commit adultery and thereby get the sin of committing a haram act. If a person has a very urgent need but is financially incapable of maintaining a wife, then such a person must fast abundantly. Later, when he has sufficient funds to maintain a wife, he must get married.
Alim: One who has attained a considerable amount of Islamic knowledge. He could also be referred to as an Islamic scholar.
Barakah: Literally means "blessings". It refers to the experiencing of abundance in things
which are apparently insignificant or little, both in value and amount. Bid'ah: Literally means "innovation". In Islam it refers to introducing new things into religion, which have no basis in the Quran or Sunnah, and in addition to this, to regard these new things as acts of Ibadah. A bid'ah is a major sin in Islam.
Dua ul-maghfirah: Supplicating to Allah Ta'ala and asking Him for His forgiveness. Ila: Annulment of a marriage after the husband's sworn testimony to have refrained from
sexual intercourse with his wife for a period of at least four months. For further details, refer to the chapter on ila. Fard: Literally means "compulsory". In Islam it refers to those acts and things which are
compulsory on a Muslim. Abandoning or abstaining from a fard act is a major sin. Rejecting a fard act amounts to kufr.
Fatwa: A formal legal opinion or verdict in Islamic law. Ghayr mahram: Refers to all those persons with whom marriage is permissible. Based on this, it is incumbent to observe purdah with all ghayr mahrams.
Ghibah: Slander or backbiting. Hayd: Monthly periods or menstruation experienced by a woman. Hajj: Literally means "pilgrimage". In Islam it refers to the annual pilgrimage to Makkah. Halal: That which is lawful or permissible in Islam. Haram: That which is unlawful or prohibited in Islam. Hûr: Refers to the large-eyed women of jannah, promised to the believers. Ibadah: Literally means "worship". In Islam it refers to all those acts of worship which one
renders to Allah Ta'ala.
Iddah: A period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced. For further details, refer to the chapter on ‘iddah. Ihram: Two pieces of unstitched cloth donned by the person performing hajj or umrah. Jahannam: Hell. Jama'ah: A group, party, community. Jannah: Paradise. Kafir: Literally means "a disbeliever". In Islam it refers to one who rejects Allah and does
not believe in Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam as the final messenger of Allah.
Kaffarah: Literally means "penance, atonement, expiation". In Islamic law it refers to redemption from the omission of certain religious duties by a material donation or a ritual act. For further details, refer to the chapter on kaffarah.
Khula': Divorce at the instance of the wife who must pay a compensation. For further details, refer to the chapter on khula'.
Kuffar: Plural of kafir. Li'an: Sworn allegation of adultery committed by either husband or wife. For further details, refer to the chapter on li'an.
Madrasah: Literally means "a school". Also used to refer to a religious school.
Maghrib: Literally means "evening or sunset". Also refers to the time of sunset and the salat that is offered thereafter. Mahr: Dower or bridal money. Mahram: Refers to the person with whom marriage is not permissible and with whom strict
purdah is not incumbent. Mahrul mithl: The dower or bridal money that is equal to or similar than that which was
given to a girl's paternal grandmothers. For further details, refer to the chapter on mahrul mithl. Masa'il: Plural of mas'ala. Mas'ala: Literally means "an issue, problem or question". In Islamic jurisprudence, it refers
to a rule or regulation. Mustahab: Literally means "preferable or desirable". Refers to that act which was carried
out by Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam or the Sahabah occasionally. Carrying out these actions entails reward and leaving them out does not entail punishment. Nafl: Optional. Nadhr: A vow or solemn pledge. Nifas: Refers to the flowing of blood after child-birth. Nikah: Marriage. Purdah: An Urdu word meaning "seclusion". It is an equivalent of the Arabic word "hijab".
Refers to the seclusion of women from strangers. There are different stages of purdah, the highest of which is that the woman should not come out of her home except for a valid Islamic reason.
Qada’: Literally means "carrying out or fulfilling". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to fulfilling or completing those duties that one may have missed out due to some reason or the other.
Qadiani: A heretical sect which regards Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani as a prophet of Allah. Qadianis are regarded as disbelievers.
Qiblah: The direction in which one faces when offering salat. Qurbani: Literally means "sacrifice". In Islam it refers to the sacrificing of animals solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala on the day of Idul-adha and the two days following it.
Ramadan: The ninth month of the Islamic calendar which is regarded as the most sacred month. Salam: Literally means "peace". ShariAh: The Islamic Law. Shaytan: Satan or the devil. ShiAh: A heretical sect found primarily in Iran. Sunnat-e-Mu'akkadah: Refers to those actions which Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam
carried out continuously. It is a sin to leave out such a sunnah without any valid excuse.
Sunni: Refers to those who belong to the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama'ah. This term is generally used as an opposite to ShiAh. Surmah: Antimony. A black powdery substance that is applied to the eyes. It is sunnah to
apply surmah. Talaq: Divorce. Talaq-e-kinayah: A divorce that is issued in vague terms without clearly uttering the
words of talaq.
Talaq-e-sarih: A divorce that is issued in clear terms without leaving any vagueness or doubt. Talaqul ba'in: A divorce which causes the annulment of the marriage. If a person wishes
to retain his wife to whom he had issued a talaqul ba'in, he will have to remarry her, i.e.
their nikah will have to be re-performed. Talaqul mughallazah: A divorce which not only causes the annulment of the marriage, but if the couple wish to remarry, the woman will have to marry another person first, when he divorces her or passes away, only then can she remarry her first husband.
Talaqur raj'i: A revocable divorce. For further details with regard to all the above forms of talaq, refer to the relevant chapters. Ulama: Plural of Alim. Ummah: Literally means "community or nation". Here it refers to the Muslim community
and nation. Wajib: Literally means "obligatory". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to that act which has
not been established by an absolute proof. Leaving out a wajib without any valid reason makes one a fasiq and entails punishment. Wali: In the context of marriage or divorce, it refers to the legal guardian of a minor. Walimah: Refers to the feast that is organized after a marriage. It usually takes place
after the bride and bride groom have spent a night together.
Wudû’: Literally means "purity or cleanliness". In Islamic terminology it refers to the act of washing oneself before offering salat. Zihar: Likening one's wife to one's mother. It is a form of divorce. For further details, refer
to the chapter on zihar.