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ﺖﻟﺎﻗ ﺎﻬﻨﻋ ﷲا ﻲﺿر ﺔﺸﺋﺎﻋ ﻦﻋو
اﺬه ﻲﺘﻴﺑ ﻲﻓ لﻮﻘﻳ ﻢﱠﻠَﺳو ِﻪْﻴَﻠَﻋ ُﷲا ﻰّﻠَﺻ ﷲا لﻮﺳر ﺖﻌﻤﺳ
ِﻟَو ﻦﻣو ، ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﻖﻘﺷﺎﻓ ﻢﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﻖﺸﻓ ًﺎﺌﻴﺷ ﻲﺘﻣُأ ﺮﻣأ ﻦﻣ ﻲﻟَو ﻦﻣ ﻢﻬﻠﻟا
ﻖﻓرﺎﻓ ﻢﻬﺑ ﻖﻓﺮﻓ ًﺎﺌﻴﺷ ﻲﺘﻣأ ﺮﻣأ ﻦﻣ َﻲ
ﻪﺑ «
ﻢﻠﺴﻣ ﻩاور
`Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: I heard the the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) supplicating in
my house:
"O Allah! Treat harshly those who rule over my Ummah with harshness, and treat gently those who rule
over my Ummah with gentleness.''
How fortunate is a ruler who establishes his claim to the special benediction of Messenger of Allah
(PBUH) by providing justice to people! On the other hand, how unfortunate is that ruler who incurs the Prophetic
imprecations by doing injustice to people! This Hadith is suggestive of a rulership based on justice and lays
emphasis on refraining injustice and atrocity.
لﺎﻗ ﻪﻨﻋ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ﻲﺿر ةﺮﻳﺮه ﻲﺑأ ﻦﻋو
ﻢﱠﻠَﺳو ِﻪْﻴَﻠَﻋ ُﷲا ﻰّﻠَﺻ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا لﻮﺳر لﺎﻗ
َﻞﻴِﺋاَﺮﺳإ ﻮُﻨَﺑ ﺖَﻧﺎَآ
َنوُﺮُﺜﻜَﻴَﻓ ُءﺎَﻔَﻠُﺧ يﺪﻌَﺑ ُنﻮُﻜَﻴَﺳو ، يﺪﻌَﺑ ﻲﺒﻧ ﻻ ُﻪﱠﻧإَو ، ﻲﺒﻧ ُﻪَﻔَﻠَﺧ ﻲﺒﻧ َﻚَﻠَه ﺎﻤﱠﻠُآ ، ُءﺎﻴﺒْﻧَﻷا ُﻢُﻬُﺳﻮُﺴَﺗ
ا لﻮﺳر ﺎَﻳ
لﺎﻗ ؟ ﺎَﻧُﺮُﻣْﺄَﺗ ﺎﻤَﻓ ﻪﱠﻠﻟ
، ﻢُﻜَﻟ يﺬﻟا ﻪﱠﻠﻟا اﻮﻟَﺄﺳاَو ، ﻢُﻬﱠﻘَﺣ ﻢُهﻮُﻄﻋَأ ﱠﻢُﺛ ، ِلﱠوَﻷﺎﻓ ِلﱠوَﻷا ِﺔَﻌﻴَﺒِﺑ اﻮُﻓوَأ
ﻢُهﺎﻋﺮَﺘﺳا ﺎﱠﻤﻋ ﻢﻬُﻠِﺋﺎﺳ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ﱠنﺈَﻓ
ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﻖﻔﺘﻣ
Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said,
"The Banu Isra'il
were ruled by the Prophets. When one Prophet died, another succeeded him. There will be no Prophet after me.
Caliphs will come after me, and they will be many.
'' The Companions said: "O Messenger of Allah, what do you
command us to do?'' He said,
"Fulfill the pledge of allegiance to which is sworn first (then swear allegiance to the
others). Concede to them their due rights and ask Allah that which is due to you. Allah will call them to account in
respect of the subjects whom He had entrusted to them.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
The political conduct of the Prophets means that rulership and government affairs were also assigned
to them, that is, both religious and worldly affairs lay in their custody. There was no dichotomy between the two,
they formed a single unit. This also characterized the period of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and the short spell that
followed it in the history of Islam. This explains why after the death of one Prophet came another Prophet and
became his successor. Second, the Hadith also settles the issue of the finality of Prophethood once for all.
Prophet will succeed me except the caliphs''
, said the Prophet (PBUH). In the case of many claimants to caliphate,
he also gave a ruling, that is, people should primarily fulfill their allegiance pledged to the first caliph and keep
away from caring for another claimant to caliphate. Third, the Prophet (PBUH) focused, on the lapses of rulers but
without being suggestive of a rebellion and public demonstrations against them. Instead he teaches us to obey them
in the administrative sphere and also to turn to Allah (SWT) and seek His Mercy and Blessing as long as they rule
by the Law of Allah.
َد ُﻪﱠﻧَأ ﻪﻨﻋ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ﻲﺿر ٍوﺮﻤﻋ ﻦﺑ ﺬِﺋﺎﻋ ﻦﻋو
ﻪﻟ لﺎﻘﻓ ، ٍدﺎﻳِز ﻦﺑا ِﻪﱠﻠﻟا ِﺪﻴﺒُﻋ ﻰﻠﻋ َﻞَﺧ
ُﺖﻌِﻤَﺳ ﻲﻧإ ، ﱠﻲَﻨُﺑ ْيَأ
لﻮﻘﻳ ﻢﱠﻠَﺳو ِﻪْﻴَﻠَﻋ ُﷲا ﻰّﻠَﺻ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا لﻮﺳر
ُﺔﻤَﻄُﺤﻟا ِءﺎﻋﱢﺮﻟا ﱠﺮَﺷ ﱠنإ
، ﻢُﻬْﻨِﻣ َنﻮُﻜَﺗ نأ َكﺎﱠﻳﺈﻓ
ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ٌﻖﻔﺘﻣ
`Aidh bin `Amr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I visited `Ubaidullah bin Ziyad and said to him:
"Dear son, I heard Messenger of Allah (PBUH) saying,
`The worst of rulers are those who treat their subjects
harshly. Beware, lest you should be one of them.'''
There is a typical, brutish sheep-herder who severely drives his flock and flogs them mercilessly. As
a result of which the timid animals get upon one another. In the Hadith, this word has been brought in for a tyrant
ruler who subjects people to oppression and treats them unkindly. It implies a strong warning and intimidation to
cruel rulers.
ﻪﻨﻋ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ﻲﺿر َﺔﻳِوﺎَﻌﻤﻟ َلﺎَﻗ ﻪﻧَأ ، ﻪﻨﻋ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ﻲﺿر ﱢيِدزَﻷا َﻢﻳﺮﻣ ﻲﺑأ ﻦﻋو
ُﷲا ﻰّﻠَﺻ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ِلﻮﺳر ُﺖﻌِﻤَﺳ
لﻮﻘﻳ ﻢﱠﻠَﺳو ِﻪْﻴَﻠَﻋ
ُأ ﻦِﻣ ًﺎﺌﻴَﺷ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ُﻩﱠﻻو ﻦﻣ
ﺐَﺠَﺘﺣا ، ﻢهِﺮﻘَﻓو ﻢﻬِﺘﱠﻠَﺧو ِﻢِﻬﺘﺟﺎَﺣ َنوُد َﺐَﺠﺘَﺣﺎَﻓ َﻦﻴﻤِﻠﺴُﻤﻟا ِرﻮﻣ
ِﺔﻣﺎﻴِﻘﻟا َمﻮﻳ ِﻩِﺮﻘَﻓو ِﻪِﺘﱠﻠَﺧو ﻪِﺘَﺟﺎَﺣ َنوُد ﻪﱠﻠﻟا
ِسﺎﻨﻟا ِﺞﺋاَﻮَﺣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻼُﺟر ُﺔﻳِوﺎَﻌُﻣ ﻞَﻌﺠَﻓ
، َدواد ﻮﺑأ ﻩاور
Abu Maryam Al-Azdi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I said to Mu`awiyah (bin Abu Sufyan) (May
Allah be pleased with them): I heard Messenger of Allah (PBUH) saying,
"If Allah invests to someone the affairs of